Of the 365 lakes in the capital only eight most pure very popular among the people of Kiev
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Hydrogeology – Pinezhsky reserve – State natural reserve pinezhskiy

The Hydrogeological setting of the karst massif of rocks determines the intensity of modern cestovanie. Gipsoangidritovye for the array characterized by the distribution of karst waters in the upper zone. The maximum-flooding zone pridelines. Under the upper Permian rocks sharply decreases. Water pressure, fissure-stratal and fissure-karst, the absolute level of 20-70 m. In terms of nutrition, movement and discharge of karst water area belongs to type III hydrodynamic sulphate karst (Gorbunov, 1979), which is characterized by the preferential development zones vertical, transition and horizontal circulation of karst waters. The thickness of the zone of intensive water exchange of 30-50 m in the raised area of the white sea-Kuloyskoe plateau up to 100 m. over developed in the watershed areas of the absorption apparatus field of sinkholes, surface waters get deep into the array, where the concentrated form of underground streams – a karst-paleogeodynamics system. The path of the underground transit from the site of absorption to areas of discharge of short duration – to 10-15 km, normal discharge in the form of descending or ascending sources in the estuarine areas of caves, marked by massive and subaqueous karst water outputs. Groundwater salinity mainly sulphate-calcium, high water is 0.4-0.8 g/l, at low water, is usually more than 2 – 2.2 g/L.

Surface water (total area of 778 hectares) in the reserve presents a wide range of water sources: permanent and periodically disappearing karst rivers and streams, karst lakes. The main drainage areas are the rivers Sotka and Pinega (the latter is located outside the reserve, but it drains the Eastern and South-Eastern part).

The total length of Weave within the reserve is 30 km, the valley of the river is 45 m. the River is canyon-like valley, weakly expressed erosional terraces, well-developed doolotova floodplain and steep, and sometimes vertical gypsum Board-full frontal nudity. Within the reserve there are over 120 small rapids and dumping, a considerable amount of discharge of karst water is about 125. Dominated by top-down sources, extending up to first tens of meters discharging from caves or crevices at the base of outcrops of gypsum. Due to underground waters, by R. Weaving increases the low flow rate of three times.

Above the border of the reserve R. Weaving typically lowland freshwater river, on this segment it flows into a large number of marginal (flow rates up to 3’10 l/s) current wetlands streams is weakly mineralised — up to 50-350 mg/l, HCO 3 Ca. Change the facial structure for SO 4 -CA occurs at the entry of the river into a strip of exposed rocks. The maximum values of 1.4 to 1.2 g/l Ca SO4 content reaches on the river ledge sulphate rocks. Within the reserve the river has only two permanent surface tributary streams of the right Bank Catboy and Padrow, on a plot of sulphate booking krasnovatoe upper Permian strata.

Of considerable interest is the number absorbed in the caves or periodically disappearing of small rivers and streams. They are characterized by a complete or, once the transition to the underground transit (R. Kamichika, streams Piechorowski, Curve) or periodic absorption in the sides of the logs karst and caves (R. Karjala, streams in the Northern and the Holy Logs). Swallowed up in the failed wells or razhruzhaly in the sides of the karst logs, streams form waterfalls, the largest of these is the waterfall at the entrance to the cave Piechorowski Failure. The largest number of waterfalls marked on the periodically vanishing watercourse to the Northern Logs.

In the reserve there is a large amount of lakes, usually small in size. The total number of – 292, most of them have an area less than 3 ha, the depth of the lakes varies in the range from the first meters to first dozens of meters. Depressions of most lakes of Pinezhsky nature reserve are karst-erosion and glacial, the development proceeds with varying degrees of erosion processing. The largest lake areas: Peskovskoe, Karamovskoye, Cumicevo, Nicotero, Erskine lake, Iron, Sychevo.

A large part of the lakes has a close morphogenetic relationship with karst and karst waters. A typical group of lakes with surface and underground flow. Cooperation with karst-paleogeodynamics systems provides nutrition in a number of lakes of karst waters. The degree of mineralization of the lakes reflects their attitude to various types of hydrodynamic, its biggest lakes are divided into: superpennie: < 50 mg/l, HCO 3 – Ca; fresh: 50-500 mg/l, HCO 3 – Ca, when a possible increase in SO 4 ; salted: 500 – 1500 mg/l SO4-CA; salt >1500 mg/l SO4-CA.

The lake Baikal reluctantly reveals its secrets
Scientists from Russia, Germany, Switzerland and England are looking at the bottom of lake Baikal responses to questions about how life evolved and changed the climate of Central Asia millions…

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Unique tri-colored crater lake of Kelimutu volcano. Discussion on LiveInternet - Russian Service Online Diaries
Kelimutu volcano-a mystical place is lost in the ocean island of Flores, which is rarely visited by tourists because of its remoteness and underdeveloped tourist infrastructure. In the sky, flying…

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